In the 1970s, Rittel coined the term “wicked problems” to describe complex problems which are tricky to define, have no set number of potential solutions, and tend to be symptomatic of another problem. User interfaces are the access points where users interact with designs. Gould and Lewis (1985) laid down three principles they believed would lead to a useful and easy to use computer system. Early focus on users and tasks First understand the users by studying their cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal characteristics Require observing users doing their normal tasks, studying the nature of those tasks, and then involving users in the design process Designing User Interfaces for Users. Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a multidisciplinary field of study focusing on the design of computer technology and, in particular, the interaction between humans (the users) and computers. The iterative design process is repeated until a sensible, user-friendly interface is created. They come in three formats: Various different strategies delineating methods for human–PC interaction design have developed since the ascent of the field during the 1980s. There are three basic types of curriculum design—subject-centered, learner-centered, and problem-centered design. Iteration is inevitable. While initially concerned with computers, HCI has since expanded to cover almost all forms of information technology design. Methodologies. Evaluating designs Three key characteristics permeate these four activities: Focus on users early in the design and evaluation of the artifact 2. This type of curriculum design tends to focus on the subject, rather than the student. These principles are also key for interaction design. Elements of Interaction Design •Motion – Interaction design is concerned with behavior – People who use products generate behavior – Products behave in response – Behavior = Motion • Pressing key • Response on screen • Click icon – Wide variation based on attitude, culture, personality, and context One of the best guides to thinking about interaction design is actually a usability standard from Usability.gov. People create a prototype and test it, then tweak and test the revised prototype, and repeat this cycle until they reach a solution. The iterative process is an approach that designers, developers, educators, and others use to continually improve a design or product. HCI design is considered as a problem solving process that has components like planned usage, target area, resources, cost, and viability. Subject-centered curriculum design revolves around a particular subject matter or discipline, such as mathematics, literature or biology. Another key figure in shaping the Design Thinking process as we know it today is design theorist Horst Rittel. Which one means the first understanding who the users will be by directly studying their cognitive, behavioral, anthropomorphic, and attitudinal characteristics. HCI Design Process Three principles for user-centered approach 1. • Involving users in the design process helps with expectation management and feelings of ownership, but how and when to involve users is a matter of dispute. UI design refers to graphical user interfaces and other forms—e.g., voice-controlled interfaces. • User centered design rests on three principles- early focus on users and tasks; empirical measurements; and iterative design. Identify, document and agree specific usability and user experience goals 3. It decides on the requirement of product similarities to balance trade-offs. Learn the basic principles of UI Design. 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